The Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts Through The Poster

6 August − 3 December 2015

NLB Gallery Avla

opening 6 August 11 a. m.

Nowadays, as we are surrounded by images and messages displayed on various media, the poster, as the oldest form of visual communication, has already been pushed aside. The history of the poster is closely connected with invention and development of print and it flourished with development of industrial and consumerist society. The poster, which conveys cultural and artistic messages, reached its peak at the turn of the 20th century. Today such a poster is more than anything else a collectable and it no longer pursues its basic mission, which is attracting crowds to arts and culture events. Now collections of posters make it possible for us to follow and interpret cultural and historical events.

The Ljubljana Biennial of Graphic Arts is an event that has chosen not to abandon the poster, even though the organiser is fully aware of its value, which is now somewhat cultural and historical rather than communicational. An overview of the Biennial through its posters is at the same time an overview of historical developments, tastes over time, and also the development of local graphic design.

This year it has been 60 years since the 1st international graphic exhibition was organised under the baton of a nine-member Organisation Committee, presided by France Stele. Secretary General at the time was Zoran Kržišnik, who later became its spiritual leader. It is evident from the minutes of the Organisation Committee that they set the framework and structure of the exhibition, criteria and technical rules for the exhibitors and the scope of visual communications to accompany the exhibition. At their second meeting they decided that a bilingual catalogue and poster would come along with the exhibition. Riko Debenjak started working on the poster, and a wood engraving Dance of Kurent, carnival figures from Ptuj, made by France Mihelič, was later selected as its leading graphic. It was printed in 500 copies and a Pablo Picasso’s graphic found its way to the cover of the catalogue due to the set of circumstances at the time. (Picasso's graphics arrived at the exhibition at the last moment, when the catalogue was already placed in the press, so the Committee decided at its 12th meeting to put a reproduction of a Picasso’s graphic on the cover, which was initially supposed to feature a graphic by Miha Maleš.)

From the first to the eighth international graphic arts exhibition, the process of making a poster was based on an invitation sent out to the artists to outline it. Ivan Picelj’s poster for the 5th international exhibition most likely broke with tradition because it was so different from previous posters. It was no longer a reproduction of an artwork laced with typography of letters, but a contemporary graphic design transmitting visual communication about this particular art event. Next year the Committee invited Jože Brumen to participate and the way he saw the visual image of the entire exhibition was so elemental, that he created both the poster and the catalogue cover (by reproducing a Riko Debenjak), and he also made a logotype by building upon the design of the previous Picelj’s posters. Since 1969 the poster and the cover of the catalogue represented a part of the Biennial design, which was practically always based on a concrete graphic arts collection, and after 1975 on a graphic of one of the award-winning artists from the previous Biennial. After 1971 the Biennial posters were therefore based on graphics by Janez Bernik, Adriana Maraž, Tetsuya Noda, Andrej Jemec, Lojze Logar, Dan Allison, Günther Uecker and other. This convention was interrupted by the 24th International Biennial of Graphic Arts in the new millennium, which revived the exhibition by challenging its structure, internal organisation, relations with the local and international public and the performance of the curator, and also by bringing a new promotional approach with new designs and tools unifying the visual identity of this event. Same as the difference in the concept of future Biennials, a constantly changing design by a different designers or a group of designers who were allowed to use visuals as they saw fit has also become its regular feature. Art graphics as the basis for visual communication has disappeared from the poster, replaced by graphic elements composing the visual identity of each upcoming event.

mag. Breda Škrjanec

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Švicarija–Ljubljana’s “nest of art”

On the European Cultural Heritage Days 2017, we invite you to join us in Tivoli Park at the Švicarija Creative Centre for a lecture on the history of this historic building and guided tour of the 32nd Biennial of Graphic Arts: Birth as Criterion.

Saturday, 30 September, 11.00–13.00, Švicarija Creative Centre, admission free

The history of the so-called Švicarija will be presented by Tatjana Adamič and Aleksandra Renčelj Škedelj, conservators of the Ljubljana Unit of the Slovenian Cultural Heritage Protection Institute (ZVKDS), which also actively participated in the renovation of the building.

The lecture will be followed by a guided tour of the main exhibition of the 32nd Biennial of Graphic Arts: Birth as Criterion in the company of art historian Gregor Dražil

The Little Biennial Dwarf Children's Corner is open during the guided tour. We provide creative art animation combined with day care, and are counting the days to the start of school. Children and accompanying adults are invited to join us free of charge.

Photo: Urška Boljkovac. MGLC Archive.


The 32nd Biennial of Graphic Arts: Birth as Criterion

Trapped in perception?
Public guided tour of the main exhibition of the 32nd Biennial of Graphic Arts: Birth as Criterion, conducted by Hana Ostan Ožbolt
Tuesday, 26 September, at 5 pm, guided tour starts at MGLC

In the search for an answer to the question of how art can be approached differently, this year's 32nd Biennial of Graphic Arts introduced certain innovations: the exhibition without the central figure of the curator, the process of selecting the participating artists was taken over by the artists themselves, and instead of a concept, the artists were confronted with the poem by Jure Detela Birth as Criterion, which served as a way of stimulating a response from the artists.

Hana Ostan Ožbolt will present those art projects in the guided tour that she thinks particularly emphasize the experimental structure of the 32nd Biennial of Graphic Arts.

Hana Ostan Ožbolt graduated in Comparative Literature and German Studies, and is currently completing her master's degree in the Department of Art History. She was part of the 15th generation of the School for Curators and Critics of Contemporary Art. She now writes occasionally and works within the field of contemporary art between Ljubljana and Berlin.

The Little Biennial Dwarf Children's Corner is open during the guided tour. We provide creative art animation combined with day care, and are counting the days to the start of school. Children and accompanying adults are invited to join us free of charge.

Photo: Urška Boljkovac. MGLC Archive.

The 32nd Biennial of Graphic Arts: Birth as Criterion

This week at the Biennial

Film projection
Kenji Mizoguchi: Ugetsu (Ugetsu monogatari, 1953),
Wednesday 20 September at 8 pm,
The Slovenian Cinematheque (Miklošičeva 28)

Workshop for young pepople 14+
Experimental animated film
Thursday, 21 September, 16.30–19.30,
Švicarija Creative Centre

Public guided tours of the exhibition Maria Bonomi: Printmaking Forever (Jakopič Gallery)
Saturday, 23 September, at 16.30,
in the English language
Sunday, 24 September, at 16.30,
in the Slovenian language

The 32 Biennial of Graphic Arts on a guest visit in Prague
Saturday, 23 September, Prague (Czech Republic)
We are being hosted at the Ljubljana presentation of the architect Jožef Plečnik in the Czech capital.

Kenji Mizoguchi: Ugetsu (Ugetsu monogatari, 1953),